What Are the Best Antibiotics For Sinus Infection?
Several types of antibiotics can treat sinus infections. These include Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones, and Trimethoprim. To determine which one is the best, read the drug labels and talk to your health care provider. Antibiotics can cure any sinus infection, but some are more effective than others. Read on to learn about the benefits and side effects of each type.
Most antibiotics for sinusitis belong to the Fluoroquinolone class, which is characterized by a broad antibacterial spectrum. A member of this class, Levofloxacin is very effective for acute and chronic sinusitis and covers a wide range of pathogens. It is the most effective antibiotic for sinusitis because it is widely available and relatively inexpensive.
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that is commonly used for acute sinusitis. It is taken in divided doses throughout the day. Cefaclor, another antibiotic, is an antibacterial that helps prevent the growth of bacteria. It is given orally, and the dosage may be doubled if the infection is severe. Sulfamethoxazole, a fluoroquinolone, is an effective antibiotic for treating sinus infections. However, it should be taken only under the supervision of a health care provider.
While many antibiotics can cure a sinus infection, fluoroquinolones are not the best choice for treating a severe case. Fluoroquinolones are highly effective at preventing the growth of drug-resistant bacteria and are generally recommended for uncomplicated sinus infections. They can also cause side effects. In addition, these antibiotics are associated with an increased risk of resistance, so they should be used cautiously.
Despite their effectiveness, fluoroquinolones have been associated with a higher incidence of permanent disability in otherwise healthy people. According to IQVIA, a health-data firm in Durham, North Carolina, prescriptions for these drugs decreased by 10% in the United States between 2004 and 2010.
A study conducted by Dr. Stephen Fried revealed that fluoroquinolones could cause severe side effects. Fried’s book Bitter Pills raised the alarm over the effects of the antibiotic, and it triggered an online epidemic. More than five thousand reports were posted to the Quinolone Antibiotic Adverse Reactions Forum by 2001. Dr. Jay Cohen worked with patients and published 45 case studies through these sites.
Researchers have speculated that fluoroquinolones may cause mitochondrial damage in humans, but the results aren’t clear. However, they found that antioxidants, such as Vitamin C might reduce fluoroquinolone-induced damage to mitochondrial cells. These findings, however, are only preliminary. They’re still under investigation in other animal models. It’s difficult to extrapolate these findings to human patients, but they provide some answers.
Levofloxacin has been shown to have a significant therapeutic advantage over other fluoroquinolones and other antibacterial agents. However, a study published in The Journal of International Medical Research showed that Levofloxacin had a greater effect on sinusitis than other fluoroquinolones and was the most effective antibiotic in this class.
The use of cephalosporins as antibiotics for acute sinusitis should be based on the likely infecting pathogens and their pharmacological profiles. Alternatively, antibiotics that cover anaerobes and Staphylococci may be prescribed. In the case of persistent infection, medical therapy should also include a topical intranasal steroid for its strong inflammatory effect. Symptomatic patients should also be evaluated for allergies and otolaryngology consultation. URTIs of viral origin must be allowed to run their course, and their treatment should be supportive.
Antibiotics for sinusitis should be reserved for acute infections lasting more than ten days or worsening after the first week. Symptoms of acute bacterial sinusitis include nasal stuffiness, facial pain, and thick, discolored nasal discharge. Nevertheless, antibiotics are also prescribed for chronic sinusitis, although many of these are not caused by bacteria. It’s important to consult a physician if you suspect you have a bacterial sinus infection, as there’s a possibility that you’re suffering from an antibiotic-resistant strain of a common bacteria.
A cephalosporin has an excellent antibacterial effect against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with a thin cell wall. Since cephalosporins can penetrate the cell walls of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, they are a good first-line antibiotic for acute sinusitis. In case of an allergic reaction, however, respiratory fluoroquinolones should be used only in cases where penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae is present.
Although complications from sinusitis are rare, they can be life-threatening. Local tenderness or pain at the ear or face, nasal discharge, and fever are common symptoms of acute sinusitis. CT scans and nuclear isotope scanning can help confirm the diagnosis. Anaerobic bacteria often cause the infection. If the infection persists, antibiotics may be necessary to clear the sinuses and prevent the onset of more serious problems.
Another alternative to amoxicillin is azithromycin. Its main advantage over amoxicillin is the convenience of a single, large dose. However, this antibiotic course should be completed within three days and not spread out over five days. Another important consideration is antibiotic resistance, as azithromycin can quickly induce it. However, this does not seem to affect the duration of treatment in most cases.
Studies have shown that oral cephalosporins are no longer sufficient as monotherapy for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Third-generation cephalosporins should be combined with clindamycin when the infecting bacteria are penicillin-resistant. Also, third-generation cephalosporins are superior to their older counterparts when used as a second-line antibiotic in patients with high S. pneumoniae infection rates.
Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis patients should be treated with antimicrobial therapy for 10-14 days, but some guidelines recommend continued treatment even after symptoms have subsided. PK/PD principles should be used to determine the appropriate duration of treatment. As with any antibiotic, the optimal duration of therapy is based on the sensitivity of the pathogens and the severity of the disease. PK/PD principles should guide the dosing regimen.
Known as Bactrim or Septra, the combination medicine contains a variety of antibiotics that fight bacteria. They effectively treat sinus infections, although they do have some side effects. Be sure to follow your doctor’s directions and seek medical help as soon as possible if you’re experiencing any of these symptoms. Trimethoprim is a fluoroquinolone, which may increase your risk of other health problems.
Macrolides are antibiotics that fight bacteria in the sinuses. This class of drugs is highly effective in fighting sinus infections because they inhibit the production of bacteria’s RNA. Because this antibiotic dries out mucus, it can make it thick and sticky. Once you add moisture to your mucus, you’ll have to deal with the problem again. It would help if you stuck with your doctor’s sinus infection treatment until you’re fully recovered. Taking more than you need may result in the buildup of antibiotic resistance.
In a study of over 5,000 patients, researchers from the University of Richmond in Virginia concluded that antibiotics could help cure up to 90 percent of these infections. Up to 25 percent of patients who started antibiotics continued to experience their symptoms, and empiric treatment may include a two-week course of a second-line antibiotic, if necessary. However, the researchers stressed that it’s important to use this antibiotic only if the infection is acute and requires more long-term treatment.
A recent study compared the effectiveness of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in people with a mild bacterial sinus infection. Results showed that, compared with the 10-day standard therapy, the three-day treatment was more effective than the 10-day treatment. However, some critics of this study have challenged its validity and have recommended that standard therapy be used until further data are available.
If your doctor prescribes a second-line treatment, they might consider using a third-line antibiotic or Cipro or Levaquin. These three antimicrobials have relatively low resistance rates, making them a good last-resort option. However, they have some side effects, such as joint pain and tendon rupture. Using these antibiotics in conjunction with a topical steroid can increase your risk for side effects.
For severe sinus infection cases, the recommended dosage is one or two doses per day. It is usually used for three to four days to eliminate the infection, and it can cause a severe headache and pain in the face. If you don’t take the recommended dosage, you may develop an underlying condition that makes it difficult to cure. If you have an existing illness, you may need to consult a doctor who can prescribe the best antibiotics for sinus infections.
As with any medication, a doctor will prescribe the right type of antibiotic for a particular patient. Depending on the type of infection and the patient’s needs, the antibiotic should effectively fight the infection while being well-tolerated. This is especially true of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, considered the most effective in treating sinus infections. These antibiotics can also cause other problems, such as septicemia.